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Figure 4. A Syntenic analysis of the genomic structure harboring the abch gene in teleosts. Genes are represented by colored arrows. Distances within genes are not represented to scale. The different species were drawn by author Chang-Bum Jeong using Photoshop. B Further syntenic analysis of the genomic structure of abch gene in tetrapods.

Entire images were drawn by the author Chang-Bum Jeong. Ethics in experiments. The marine medaka O. Doris W. The automated water-changing system was set for constant flow-through, and water quality pH, salinity, and temperature was recorded using various instruments.

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Fish were maintained in glass aquaria 60 L capacity and each aquarium accommodated up to 30 adult fish both sexes. Retrieval of ABC transporter genes. Figure 5. Schematic diagram for evolutionary scenario of the abch gene in eumetazoans. The diagram depicts a phylogenetic tree of metazoan species. Gene loss event is marked with an "X" in a yellow circle.

Unknown information on the existence of the abch gene is marked with a "? The different species were drawn by the author Chang-Bum Jeong using Photoshop. Briefly, the genomic DNA of O. Genomic DNA of O. Currently, the number of unidentified N in the consensus sequence is 50,, bp, indicating that approximately 7.

To date, we have obtained 46, genes unpublished data; total length: 27,, bp; longest length: 7, bp; N50 value: 2, bp after de novo genome assembly and RNA-sequencing contig no. Nucleotide sequence validation. To validate cDNA sequences of entire. ABC genes identified in O.

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Annotation of whole ABC transporter genes. Annotation and nomenclature of all the O. All gene information was registered with the GenBank database, and the accession numbers of each gene are appended in Table 1. Phylogenetic analysis. To investigate evolutionary relationships and the nomenclature of O. MrBayes ver. Sampling frequency was every generations.


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After analysis, the first 5, trees were deleted as part of the burn-in process. A consensus tree was constructed and was visualized using SeaView ver. Roninson, I. Amplification of specific DNA sequences correlates with multi-drug resistance in Chinese hamster cells.

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Nature , Dean, M. Genome Res. Avidson, A. Structure, function, and evolution of bacterial ATP-binding cassette systems. Walker, J. Distantly related sequences in the alpha- and beta-subunits of ATP synthase, myosin, kinases and other ATP-requiring enzymes and a common nucleotide binding fold. EMBO J. Annilo, T. Evolution of the vertebrate ABC gene family: Analysis of gene birth and death.

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  5. The ABC transporter gene family of Daphnia pulex. BMC Genomics 10, Dermauw, W. The ABC gene family in arthropods: Comparative genomics and role in insecticide transport and resistance. Insect Biochem. Luckenbach, T. Current advances on ABC drug transporters in fish.

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    Ferreira, M. ABC transporters in fish species: a review. Liu, S. Genome-wide identification, characterization and phylogenetic analysis of 50 catfish ATP-binding cassette ABC transporter genes. Meyer, A. Gene and genome duplications in vertebrates: the one-to-four -to-eight in fish rule and the evolution of novel gene functions. Cell Biol.

    Ohno, S. Parenti, L. A phylogenetic analysis and taxonomic revision of ricefishes, Oryzias and relatives Beloniformes: Adrianichthyidae.

    Inoue, K. Diverse adaptability in Oryzias species to high environmental salinity. Chen, X. Molecular staging of marine medaka: a model organism for marine ecotoxicity study. Rhee, J. Whole spectrum of cytochrome P genes and molecular responses to water-accommodated fractions exposure in the marine medaka. Kasahara, M. The medaka draft genome and insights into vertebrate genome evolution. Genomics Hum.

    Jeong, C. BMC Genomics 15, Allikmets, R. Oram, J. ABCA1: the gatekeeper for eliminating excess cholesterol. Lipid Res.

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