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He is also known for writing an authoritative pamphlet on the card game of Whist. Whist is a trick card game played by two teams of two players each.

The card game evolved from a previous game called Ruff and Honors and is the predecessor of Bridge. Popular in the 18th and the 19th century, the game required mathematical and logical skills. The phrase according to Hoyle came from the authoritative books Hoyle wrote on the rules and regulations of games. Today, the phrase is used generally to suggest expertise or the highest authority on a subject matter. Thank you for your feedback.

Edmond Hoyle

Learn More in these related Britannica articles: card game: Rules and Hoyles. The entrepreneurial spirit of independent record labels anticipated the radical economic…. History at your fingertips. Sign up here to see what happened On This Day , every day in your inbox!

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By signing up, you agree to our Privacy Notice. Estimates have been made of the minimum number of the simplest enzymes necessary to sustain life.


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Hoyle calculates that the probability of the various amino acids combining together by chance to produce these enzymes is one in 10 to the power of 6, i. This is a mind-numbingly large number.

By comparison, the number of atoms in all the galaxies visible through the largest telescopes in the observable universe is only 10 to the power of Hoyle concludes that, considering these probabilities, life could only have arisen given the longest possible time-frame from the birth of the first stars to the formation of our Earth, 10 to 15 billion years and the volume of the entire universe in which to happen.

Hoyle proposes that life began as a simple bacterium long before the formation of our solar system. Once formed, life spread rapidly throughout the universe, and was present in the cosmic material that coalesced to form our solar system five billion years ago. Life spread rapidly through the power of geometrical growth. A bacterial cell under favourable conditions will easily grow and divide into two daughter cells in two hours. These will become four in another two hours, and eight after six hours, and so on.

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In about four days multiplication proceeds to two to the power of 40 cells, the size of a sugar cube. After 20 days the bacteria, growing optimally, reach the mass of a cluster of galaxies. The spaces between stars contain elongated dust grains, each about 0. They are mostly spread out thinly but in places are concentrated with greater density to form interstellar clouds.

According To Hoyle by Abigail Roux

Hoyle postulates, based on their light-absorbing properties, that these grains are desiccated bacteria. We now know that bacteria can live in extremely inhospitable conditions, e.

Certain types of bacteria live in the intensely radioactive environment of nuclear power plant cooling systems. It might therefore be possible for bacteria to arise and to survive in the harsh conditions of outer space. Hoyle and Wickramasinghe suggest a vital role for comets. Comets have been described as "frozen dirty snowballs", but there is evidence that the cores of large forming comets are warm and liquid.

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Hoyle proposes that cosmic bacteria replicated into large numbers in these cometary cores. Comets are probably associated with all solar systems in the cosmos. Far beyond the orbit of Pluto, at the edge of our solar system, is a huge storage cloud of comets called the Oort Cloud.